Reel History UK – The Origins of Disneyland

Jenna Pateman dives into the history around Disneyland's creation in this Reel History UK special feature

To accompany the recent Reel History UK focusing on Disneyland, Jenna Pateman dives into the origins of the first Disney park in this special editorial feature. If you haven’t already, give the Disneyland episode of Reel History UK a listen here after you’ve finished reading this article.


The iconic Sleeping Beauty’s Castle Disneyland located at the heart of the park.

“To all who come to this happy place: Welcome.”

Since 1955, and the opening of the original Disneyland, the Disney Company’s parks have become core to their business model, generating  “nearly a third of its $45 billion revenue” in 2013 alone.[1] Considered a juggernaut in tourism, the six amusement park resorts, located all around the world, attract millions of guests every year.[2] However the “happiest place[s] on earth” did not just appear like magic, but like Mickey Mouse, arose from the passion of one man and his teams: Walt Disney, The Disney Studios, and WED Enterprises.[3] Although it is challenging to identify precisely when Walt Disney came up with the idea of creating the first Disney Park, Disneyland in California, as there does not appear to have been one single significant event that inspired him to move into the amusement industry, which at that time, unlike today, had no links to Hollywood and the world of entertainment.[4] Instead, it appears to have been a combination of different accepts of Walt’s life, including his hobbies and smaller events in his everyday life outside his day job as head of an animation studio, that inspired him to take the risk on the level as creating Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the first full length animated feature in history.[5] However, it is easy to see that from Disneyland’s inception, the World’s Fairs have served as an inspiration and influence, building on the utopian ideals of the World’s Fairs, and improving on them to bring a fantastical utopia into reality through the use of the latest technology.[6]

Although according to the WED Enterprises training booklet produced before the park was opened, the “plans for WaIt’s 160 Acre Magic Kingdom” in Anaheim, California, first appeared on paper as far back as 1932,” it was not until the early 1950s that Walt was able to gather the necessary finances to get his idea off the ground.[7]

Well, it came about when my daughters were very young, and Saturday was always daddy’s day with the two daughters, so we’d start out and try to go someplace, you know, different things, and I’d take them to the merry-go-round and take them different places. As I would sit there while they rode the merry-go-around, Did all these things, sit on a bench and eating peanuts, I felt that there should be something built, like some kind of an amusement enterprise built where the parents and the children could have fun together. So that’s how Disneyland started. Well it took many years, it was a whole period of 15 years developing started with many ideas, threw them all away, start all over again and eventually it evolved into what you see today as Disneyland. But it all started from a Daddy with two daughters wondering where he could take them where he could have a little fun with them too.

Walt Disney – Walt’s World (Interview with Walt Disney by Fletcher Markle) 25th September 1963

The most often-told story of the creation of Disneyland was first told during an interview with Fletcher Markle, aired 25th September 1963.[8] Walt spoke about how he came up with the idea of “an amusement enterprise” during the early 1930s, as he sat on a bench eating peanuts and watching his two daughters ride the merry-go-round in Griffith Park, Los Angeles.[9] This story has been repeated in almost every Disneyland history book, journal and website, and at Walt Disney World, Magic Kingdom, the bench that Walt supposedly sat on has been preserved.[10] He wanted to create a space in which the whole family could have fun together, that was “clean, tasteful, logically planned,” a “first-class theme park.”[11]

The bench that Walt reportedly sat on in Griffith Park as he watched his daughters on a carousel, now located in the Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln foyer

At the time, many of the older amusement parks, located in inner-city areas, had “acquired new reputations as habitats for urban decay and haunts for urban criminals.”[12] As more and more white and middle-class families fled from city centres to the newly built suburbs after the second world war, this perception of amusement parks as  “dirty, garnish, disorganised and of minimal interest to adults” meant that these families stayed away, and many of these older parks had closed by the end of the 1960s.[13] This view of amusement parks as dangerous places for children was even highlighted in Walt’s second full-length feature, Pinocchio (1940), in which the title character travels to a terrifying midway, Pleasure Island, which is full of colourful sights, thrills and forbidden temptations that almost cause Pinocchio to be turned into a donkey and sold into slavery.[14]

Among Walt’s first ideas on ways to entertain families was the concept of a travelling show covering the United States of America’s rail network. Since he was a young boy, trains had always caught his imagination as much as art had.[15] However, it was not until his doctor urged him to get a hobby outside the studio following a breakdown due to stress, that trains started to become an obsession that was quickly “turning into a replacement for animation.”[16] This obsession reached the point where Walt built a  personal ⅛-scale model railroad in his back garden in 1950 and named it the Carolwood-Pacific Railroad.[17]   was to be a moving exhibition of miniatures, some created by Walt himself, which would travel around America in three railroad cars but this project was also cancelled when the costs for operating and moving the train were seen as too costly.[18] However, it is important to note that the exhibition was also the first place to feature an early version of the Audio-Animatronics that would become famous thanks in part to the New York World’s Fair.[19]

Walt Disney and Ward Kimball poses for an old-time photo during their 1948 visit to the Chicago Railroad Fair (From D23.com)

On a therapeutic trip to New Orleans in 1946, Walt had purchased a small antique mechanical bird that would sing and flutter when wound up.[20] When looking into the Disneylandia project in 1949, Walt tasked one of his animators, Ken Anderson, to study the small bird and develop ways to make the miniatures more exciting for the visitors.[21] Walt reasoned that he and his studio had been working on 2D Cel style animation for many years, and it might be time to explore some other forms of animating, including three-dimensional animation.[22] As with everything that Walt did, this idea became a new passion, much to the bemusement of his wife and two daughters.[23] Diane Disney Miller, Walt’s eldest daughter, recalled “When we went to Paris, Dad went off on his own and came back with boxes and boxes of these little windup toys. He wound them all up and put them on the floor of the room and just sat and watched them. He said, ‘Look at that movement with just a simple mechanism.’ He was studying; he could see Audio-Animatronics. We thought he was crazy.”[24] This was codenamed Project Little Man, as the first task was to create a small, mechanical dancing man.[25]

Another factor which shaped Walt’s thinking about creating his theme park was the fact that since Mickey Mouse’s popularity had soared, the Disney Studios had been inundated with letters from children from all across America expressing a “desire to meet Mickey in person.”[26] Walt commented to Ward Kimball, an important animator at Disney Studios (and one of the ‘Nine Old Men’), “You know, it’s a shame people come to Hollywood and find there’s nothing to see.” Walt understood that people, especially children, would travel to Hollywood and be disappointed only to see a “bunch of guys bending over drawings.”[27] The public demand to visit the home of the motion pictures they viewed at the cinema was becoming so high that other studios had started to “sell paper-bag lunches and maps of their backlots for the fans bent on a behind-the-scenes glimpse.”[28] By 1948 he had begun to outline his ideas to develop a small amusement area called Mickey Mouse Park, to be located on an eleven-acre plot they owned on Riverside Drive, across the street from the Disney Studio.[29] The park would consist of a small village, including a small farm and carnival, enclosed by a mini railway, the whole of which, according to Walt, must have a “very relaxing, cool and inviting” atmosphere.[30] His love of trains led him to maintain this feature in every main Disneyland style park.[31]

Development idea for the Mickey Mouse Park

Like the Disneylandia project, the Mickey Mouse Park never got past the planning stages party due to the reluctance of his brother Roy Disney, who reminded him of the company’s massive debt to the Bank of America due to their post-war struggles.[32] Walt’s applications for building permits had also been turned down by Burbank’s City Council, who did not want the “carny atmosphere” that was still associated with amusements of this type.[33]  However, the main reason was that Walt’s ideas were becoming too big for the small piece of land, so much so that according to Kimball, “Once he got this bug about the Park, it was an obsession. That’s all he thought about.” [34]

Despite these setbacks, Walt continued to develop his ideas.[35] Roy Disney believed that he had been able to convince his brother that the “undertaking of an amusement park would be financial folly,” telling a business friend in a letter that Walt’s “ideas that would be good in an amusement park, rather than running one himself,” and noting “Walt doesn’t have any of his own money to put into these things.”[36] Most of Disney’s investors and bankers agreed with Roy.[37] However, Walt was very confident about his concept and decided to raise the money himself instead, “sidestepping the studio,” and borrowing $100,000 against his life insurance, selling his Palm Springs holiday home and inviting his studio employees to pay into a ‘Backers and Boosters’ group.[38]  This initial influx of cash led to Walt starting a separate business for his amusement park without Roy Disney or the studio in 1952. Originally called Walt Disney, Incorporated, it was renamed WED Enterprises, it employed a staff of artists, engineers and designers, some of whom had previously been working at the studio.[39] In 1953, Walt commissioned the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) to analyse the economic feasibility of his ideas, as well as to look for the best location for the new park in terms of “population trends, land prices, accessibility, and the climate of 10 regions in the greater Los Angeles area”; it should also be flat and not near a beach.[40] The SRI first choice of several farms in the “Ball Road Subdivision” area in Anaheim was selected and purchased.[41]

Even while this study was being conducted, Walt and his team at WED continued to work, redesigning the 16 acres Mickey Mouse Park to cover 50 acres. In May 1953, Walt hired Marvin Davis to “translate his ideas into a workable site plan,” and it was Davis who came up with what is almost now the standard for the modern amusement park, the spoke-and-wheel layout.[42] This design was very reminiscent of the World Fair layouts, where from one main central hub, visitors could move to many different themed areas.[43] The World Fair remained an important reference point to Walt and WED, with Admiral Joseph Fowler, Walt’s head of construction at the 1964 Fair, recalling that “Every summer Walt would send me to Europe for ideas. Often, he would come along. We’d go to World’s Fairs, Oktoberfests, gardens, amusement parks – you name it. He wanted to learn about operations, attractions… well about everything! He would just soak it all in. It was typical of Walt Disney.”[44] This would continue even after Disneyland opened, as according to Walt in a 1950 interview with the Hollywood Citizen News “The park means a lot to me. It’s something that will never be finished, something I can keep ‘plussing’ and adding to. It’s alive.”[45] Walt also encouraged this sentiment in his Imagineers. According to one of them, Rolly Crump, who was sent to the Seattle 1962 World’s Fair, “He basically wanted us to absorb. Walt always wanted us to reach into the outside, strictly from a standpoint of education. Anything we learned was just going to make us better.”[46]

Walt inspecting the construction of Sleeping Beauty’s Castle

As the development of his amusement park continued, the disagreement with his brother Roy meant that Walt had to continue to raise the funding for the project himself.[47] Thanks to the SRI Study he knew how much the park was going to cost and had secured the land. However, it was not until the spring of 1953 that Walt was finally able to secure the necessary sum. The Stanford Report initially put the costs at $11 million, although by the time the park opened in July the costs had risen to $17 million.[48] Some of the funds were secured through five year “leasing agreements” for attractions, exhibitions and refreshments taken up by American businesses including “American Motors, Kodak, Kaiser Aluminum, Trans World Airlines, Pepsi, and Monsanto.”[49] This arrangement involved paying the first and fifth-year rents upfront, which provided Walt with a cash injection.[50]

Kintner, the Executive Vice President from ABC Network, rang saying “Walt, I hear you need money to build your fairground. If you agree to let us put Mickey Mouse on our network, my directors are ready to advance you $250,000 for it. Furthermore, we’re willing to come in on a joint venture with you and guarantee loans up to three million dollars.”[51] After some discussion (including some gems like “God’s sake, how many times do I have to tell people it’s a leisure park, not a fairground!” and Walt calling ABC “The Peanuts network… you’re the little orphan Annie of the TV airways.”) the two agreed on a $500,000 in cash and a $4,500,000 guarantee for a stake in the park as well as Walt Disney producing a regular television show which would be titled Disneyland.[52] This show was to be a promotional vehicle for getting the public interested in the new park by showcasing the planning and construction of the park. It was also thanks to the growing public excitement that Roy Disney and the board of directors at the studio came on board as well. The construction of Disneyland started 12th July 1954 and opened just over a year later, on 17th July 1955, although Walt’s high standards and obsession with the smallest of details meant that the park was only just ready, with some details (including most of Tomorrowland) not being finished on time.

The opening day of Disneyland has come to be known as Black Sunday due to all the mishaps, including thousands of additional tickets for the event being counterfeited, resulting instead of just the 6,000 planned VIPs and press turning up, an estimated 28,154 people attended the opening.[53] One man was offering people that had not been able to get a ticket a trip over the fence on his ladder for $5.[54] Food and drink ran out at the restaurants and stands.[55] Some rides broke down.[56] The floor had not finished hardening, and ladies’ heels got stuck.[57] There a gas leak in Fantasyland meaning the area had to be closed.[58] However, due to Walt being busy with the recording of ABC’s of the opening event, he was unaware until much later in the day,  creating a live broadcast that was like Disney’s film a version of “fantasy, not reality.”[59] According to Bob Thomas in Walt Disney: An American Original, the park received mostly negative reviews, and Walt spent the next few weeks living at the park overseeing all the improvements to his park, sleeping in a small flat on Main Street USA, above the firehouse.[60]

The opening day queue for Disneyland

The opening day of Disneyland was considered a huge mess, with one journalist writing “Walt’s dream is a nightmare… a fiasco the like I cannot recall in thirty years of show life. To me it felt like a giant cash register, clicking and clanging.”[61]  Even with the press reporting and reviewing the park negativity, it was thanks in part to the hype that was built because of the ABC and the Disneyland TV show, that attendance being 50% above the expected amount, welcoming the millionth guest only 52 days after opening.[62] Disneyland’s success allowed the Disney company finances to be stable placement with their profits going from $0.5million in 1952 to $3.4million by 1959.[63] Walt and the WED enterprises continued to develop the park, as according to an interview with Walt on opening day “Disneyland will never be completed, as long as there is imagination left in the world.”[64] By its year anniversary, Disneyland had had over 4 million guests and added new attractions including the Skyway, Submarine Voyage, The Monorail, and the Matterhorn Bobsleds, as well as two more ‘lands’ Tom Sawyer Island and Storybrook Land.[65] Even with the continuing development, Walt was disappointed by building projects happening outside of the park, as the area was becoming full of “sleazy motels, diners and attractions,” which did not match the Disneyland high standards.[66]

Jenna Pateman

You can listen to Jenna, along with Hugh K. David, in Reel History UK. Listen to the podcast now on Bunkazilla UK or via all good podcasting platforms. 

You can follow Jenna on twitter @nadesicokitty and if you enjoyed her work you can support here at Ko-fi.com. Just hit the button below. 

Ko Fi Logo


Footnotes

[1] Christian Sylt, “The Secrets behind Disney’s $2.2 Billion Theme Park Profits”, Forbes.Com, 2014 <https://www.forbes.com/sites/csylt/2014/07/14/the-secrets-behind-disneys-2-2-billion-theme-park-profits/#1c837a6a584f&gt; [Accessed 21 May 2019].

[2] These 6 resorts include Anaheim in California (1955), Orlando in Florida (1971), Tokyo in Japan (1983), Paris in France (1992), Hong Kong (2005) and Shanghai (2016) in China

Gregory B. C. Shaw, “Disneyland Timeline”, Sacramento State, 2012 <https://www.csus.edu/indiv/s/shawg/articles/facilities/disneyland_timeline.html&gt; [Accessed 18 May 2019].

[3] WED Enterprises is now known as Walt Disney Imagineering, changing its name in the late 1980’s.

“Disney History”, D23 [Walt Disney Archives], 2019 <https://d23.com/disney-history/&gt; [Accessed 1 June 2019].

“The Happiest Place on Earth Just Got Happier”, Disneyland Resort Public Affairs, 2007 <https://publicaffairs.disneyland.com/the-happiest-place-on-earth-just-got-happier/&gt; [Accessed 1 June 2019].

[4] Reece Fischer and Peter Losin, “The Creation of Disneyland”, Plosin.Com, 2004 <http://www.plosin.com/beatbegins/projects/fischer.html&gt; [Accessed 14 April 2019].

[5] Adela Rogers St John, “Walt Disney’s Gambles”, Milwaukee Sentinel, 1955, pp. 34-35 <https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=pFcxAAAAIBAJ&sjid=DhAEAAAAIBAJ&pg=5885%2C4273680&gt; [Accessed 15 April 2019].

[6] “Disney Parks Introduces “Where Dreams Come True,” A Worldwide Initiative Tied to Global Consumer Insights – The Walt Disney Company”, The Walt Disney Company, 2006 <https://www.thewaltdisneycompany.com/disney-parks-introduces-where-dreams-come-true-a-worldwide-initiative-tied-to-global-consumer-insights/&gt; [Accessed 15 May 2019].

[7] WED Enterprises, Disneyland: Where You Leave Today….And Visit The World Of Yesterday And Tomorrow (Glendale, California: WED Enterprises, 1953) <https://www.dix-project.net/item/845/misc-documents-disneyland-where-you-leave-today-and-visit-the-world-of-yesterday-and-tomorrow&gt; [Accessed 10 April 2019]. p.19

[8] “Telescope” (CBC, 1963). [Fletcher Markle Interviews Walt Disney – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4nMrLcmBCuI/ https://www.dix-project.net/item/2163/telescope-cbc-walt-s-world%5DI

[9] “Telescope” (CBC, 1963). [Fletcher Markle Interviews Walt Disney – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4nMrLcmBCuI/ https://www.dix-project.net/item/2163/telescope-cbc-walt-s-world%5DI

[10] Jim Denney, “The Origin of Walt’s Disneyland Idea”, Walt’s Disneyland [Rediscovering the Park Walt Envisioned], 2019 <https://waltsdisneyland.wordpress.com/2017/05/03/the-origin-of-walts-disneyland-idea/&gt; [Accessed 10 April 2019].

Lindsay Blake, “Merry-Go-Round in Griffith Park Inspired Walt Disney To Create Disneyland”, Los Angeles Magazine, 2019 <https://www.lamag.com/citythinkblog/this-old-timey-merry-go-round-in-griffith-park-inspired-walt-disney-to-create-disneyland/&gt; [Accessed 10 April 2019].

[11] “Telescope” (CBC, 1963). [Fletcher Markle Interviews Walt Disney – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4nMrLcmBCuI/ https://www.dix-project.net/item/2163/telescope-cbc-walt-s-world%5DI

David Koenig, Mouse Tales: A Behind-The-Ears Look at Disneyland (Irvine, California: Bonaventure Press, 1995). p.19

[12] Lauren Rabinovitz, Electric Dreamland: Amusement Parks, Movies, and American Modernity (New York, New York State: Columbia University Press, 2012). p.164

[13] Lauren Rabinovitz, Electric Dreamland: Amusement Parks, Movies, and American Modernity (New York, New York State: Columbia University Press, 2012). p.163-4

David Koenig, Mouse Tales: A Behind-The-Ears Look at Disneyland (Irvine, California: Bonaventure Press, 1995). p.19

[14] Ben Sharpsteen and Hamilton Luske, Pinocchio (United States of America: Walt Disney Productions, 1940).

[15] Neal Gabler, Walt Disney: The Biography (London, United Kingdom: Aurum Press Ltd, 2011). p. 465

[16] Walt Disney would always be working, so much to the point that his wife, Lillian Disney, claimed that “no matter what plans I had made for the weekend, we would always end up at the studio. He couldn’t get it out of his mind.”

Neal Gabler, Walt Disney: The Biography (London, United Kingdom: Aurum Press Ltd, 2011). p. 465

[17] Erin Glover, “The Carolwood-Pacific Railroad, Inspiration for The Disneyland Railroad”, Disney Parks Blog, 2019 <https://disneyparks.disney.go.com/blog/2013/05/the-carolwood-pacific-railroad-inspiration-for-the-disneyland-railroad/&gt; [Accessed 10 April 2019].

[18] Karal Ann Marling, Designing Disney’s Theme Parks (Montréal, Quebec: Canadian Centre for Architecture, 1997).

[19] Chris Mullen, “Walt’s World’s Fair”, The Walt Disney Family Museum, 2016 <https://www.waltdisney.org/blog/walts-worlds-fair&gt; [Accessed 10 April 2019].

[20] “The Birds, Beasts, And Beauty of Disney’s Audio-Animatronics Characters – D23”, D23, 2019 <https://d23.com/audio-animatronics-disneyland-magic-kingdom-walt-disney-world/&gt; [Accessed 10 April 2019].

[21] Karal Ann Marling, Designing Disney’s Theme Parks (Montréal, Quebec: Canadian Centre for Architecture, 1997). P.48

[22] “The Birds, Beasts, And Beauty of Disney’s Audio-Animatronics Characters – D23”, D23, 2019 <https://d23.com/audio-animatronics-disneyland-magic-kingdom-walt-disney-world/&gt; [Accessed 10 April 2019].

[23]  J. Michael Barrier, The Animated Man: A Life of Walt Disney (Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 2008). P.290

[24] Amy Boothe Green and Howard E Green, Remembering Walt (New York, New York State: Disney Editions, 2002).p.168

[25] Karal Ann Marling, Designing Disney’s Theme Parks (Montréal, Quebec: Canadian Centre for Architecture, 1997). p.48

[26] Joseph Titizian, “Disneyland, The Quintessential Classics: Mickey Mouse!”, The Walt Disney Family Museum, 2013 <https://www.waltdisney.org/blog/disneyland-quintessential-classics-mickey-mouse&gt; [Accessed 12 April 2019].

[27] Bob Thomas, Walt Disney: An American Original (New York, New York State: Disney Editions, 1994). p.218

[28] Karal Ann Marling, Designing Disney’s Theme Parks (Montréal, Quebec: Canadian Centre for Architecture, 1997). P.39

[29] “Walt Disney’s Proposed Theme Park in Burbank – D23”, D23, 2013 <https://d23.com/mickey-mouse-park-art-burbank-theme-park-disneyland/&gt; [Accessed 12 April 2019].

[30] Erin Glover, “This Week in Disney History: Document Outlining Early Concept for Disneyland Is Shared, 1948”, Disney Parks Blog, 2019 <https://disneyparks.disney.go.com/blog/2013/08/this-week-in-disney-history-document-outlining-early-concept-for-disneyland-is-shared-1948/&gt; [Accessed 12 April 2019].

[31] One reason for this idea was to create a “create a natural barrier between the outside world and the magical realms inside.”

“Walt Disney’s Proposed Theme Park in Burbank”, D23, 2013 <https://d23.com/mickey-mouse-park-art-burbank-theme-park-disneyland/&gt; [Accessed 12 April 2019].

Erin Glover, “The Carolwood-Pacific Railroad, Inspiration for The Disneyland Railroad”, Disney Parks Blog, 2019 <https://disneyparks.disney.go.com/blog/2013/05/the-carolwood-pacific-railroad-inspiration-for-the-disneyland-railroad/&gt; [Accessed 10 April 2019].

[32] Bob Thomas, Walt Disney: An American Original (New York, New York State: Disney Editions, 1994). p.218

[33] Sam Gennawey, Walt Disney And the Promise of Progress City (United States of America: Theme Park Press, 2011). p.52

[34] Sam Gennawey, Walt Disney And the Promise of Progress City (United States of America: Theme Park Press, 2011). p 53

Michael Barrier, “Interviews: Ward Kimball”, Michaelbarrier.Com, 2003 <http://www.michaelbarrier.com/Interviews/Kimball/interview_ward_kimball.htm&gt; [Accessed 13 April 2019].

[35] Bob Thomas, Walt Disney: An American Original (New York, New York State: Disney Editions, 1994). p.219

[36] Bob Thomas, Walt Disney: An American Original (New York, New York State: Disney Editions, 1994). p.219

[37] Bob Thomas, Walt Disney: An American Original (New York, New York State: Disney Editions, 1994). p.219

[38] Steven Watts, The Magic Kingdom: Walt Disney And the American Way Of Life (Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 2001). P.385

[39] Karal Ann Marling, Designing Disney’s Theme Parks (Montréal, Quebec: Canadian Centre for Architecture, 1997). p.48

Leonard Mosley, Disney’s World (Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 1985) p. 229

[40] “Stanford Research Institute International – Timeline [Disneyland]”, Sri.Com, 2019 <https://www.sri.com/work/timeline-innovation/timeline.php?tag=firsts#!&innovation=disneyland&gt; [Accessed 16 April 2019].

[41] “Stanford Research Institute International – Timeline [Disneyland]”, Sri.Com, 2019 <https://www.sri.com/work/timeline-innovation/timeline.php?tag=firsts#!&innovation=disneyland&gt; [Accessed 16 April 2019].

[42] Karal Ann Marling, Designing Disney’s Theme Parks (Montréal, Quebec: Canadian Centre for Architecture, 1997). p.60

The Diss from Harvard p.2

[43] Paul F. Anderson, “The 1964 World’s Fair”, Persistence of Vision, 1995. p.27.

Brown University, Trocadéro, Exposition Universelle Internationale De 1900, 1900 <https://library.brown.edu/cds/catalog/catalog.php?verb=render&colid=6&id=1303833678843752&gt; [Accessed 16 April 2019].

Library of Congress, World’s Fair St. Louis, 1904. Map, 1904 <https://www.loc.gov/item/99466762/&gt; [Accessed 16 April 2019].

 University of Milwaukee, Chicago World’s Fair 1934, 1934 <https://collections.lib.uwm.edu/digital/collection/agdm/id/2561/&gt; [Accessed 16 April 2019].

Paul M. Van Dort, 1939 New York World’s Fair Map, 1939 <https://www.1939nyworldsfair.com/worlds_fair/wf_tour/index.htm&gt; [Accessed 16 April 2019].

Expo Museum, World Fair’s 1962 Map, 1962 <http://www.expomuseum.com/1962/&gt; [Accessed 16 April 2019].

Disneyland, Disneyland 1955 Map, 1955 <https://disneyavenue.files.wordpress.com/2015/04/5d8b3-1955.jpg&gt; [Accessed 16 April 2019].

[44] Paul F. Anderson, “The 1964 World’s Fair”, Persistence of Vision, 1995. p.29 and other places where this quote can be found.

[45] “The park means a lot to me. It’s something that will never be finished, something I can keep developing, keep ‘plussing’ and adding to. It’s alive. It will be a live, breathing thing that will need changes. When you wrap up a picture and turn it over to Technicolor, you’re through. Snow White is a dead issue with me. I just finished up a live-action picture, wrapped it up a few weeks ago. It’s gone. I can’t touch it. There are things in it I don’t like, but I can’t do anything about it. I want something live, something that would grow. The park is that. Not only can I add things, but even the trees will keep growing. The thing will get more beautiful year after year. And it will get better as I find out what the public likes. I can’t do that with a picture; it’s finished and unchangeable before I find out whether the public likes it or not.”

Chris Strodder, The Disneyland Book Of Lists (Santa Monica, California: Santa Monica Press, 2015). P .

[46] Paul F. Anderson, “The 1964 World’s Fair”, Persistence of Vision, 1995. p.29

[47] This disagreement was so big that Roy and Walt were choosing to only communicate though their secretaries and wives.

Leonard Mosley, Disney’s World (Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 1985). p.229

[48] “Stanford Research Institute International – Timeline [Disneyland]”, Sri.Com, 2019 <https://www.sri.com/work/timeline-innovation/timeline.php?tag=firsts#!&innovation=disneyland&gt; [Accessed 16 April 2019].

[49] Judith Adams-Volpe, The American Amusement Park Industry: A History of Technology and Thrills (Boston, Massachusetts: Twayne Publishers, 1991). p.94

[50] Judith Adams-Volpe, The American Amusement Park Industry: A History of Technology and Thrills (Boston, Massachusetts: Twayne Publishers, 1991). p.94

[51] Leonard Mosley, Disney’s World (Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 1985). p.233

[52] Leonard Mosley, Disney’s World (Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 1985). p.233

[53] Chris Strodder, The Unofficial, Unauthorized, And Unprecedented History of Every Land, Attraction, Restaurant, Shop, And Major Event In The Original Magic Kingdom, 2nd edn (Santa Monica, California: Santa Monica Press, 2012). P.289

[54] David Koenig, Mouse Tales: A Behind-The-Ears Look at Disneyland (Irvine, California: Bonaventure Press, 1995). P.23

[55] Bill Scollon, Walt Disney: Drawn from Imagination (Glendale, California: Disney Press, 2014). P.104

[56] Brian J Robb, A Brief History of Walt Disney (London, United Kingdom: Little Brown Book Group, 2015). P. 145

[57]Young boys also used the wet cerement to their average and put rude messages and their footprints in too.

Leonard Mosley, The Real Walt Disney (London, United Kingdom: Futura Publications, 1987). p.233

[58] Katherine Greene and Richard Greene, The Man Behind the Magic: The Story Of Walt Disney (New York, New York State: Viking, 1991). P.129

[59] Kat Eschner, “Disneyland’s Terrible First Day Didn’t Stop the Crowds from Coming”, Smithsonian, 2017 <https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/disneylands-terrible-first-day-didnt-stop-crowds-coming-180964013/#dT4WfURqGEvEt5qP.99&gt; [Accessed 22 April 2019].

[60] Bob Thomas, Walt Disney: An American Original (New York, New York State: Disney Editions, 1994). p.

[61] Randy Bright, Disneyland: Inside Story (New York, New York State: H.N. Abrams, 1987). P.105

[62] “Disneyland Reached 1 Million Visitors 61 Years Ago Today”, Laughingplace.Com, 2016 <https://www.laughingplace.com/w/blogs/disney-buzz/2016/09/08/disneyland-reached-1-million-visitors-61-years-ago-today/&gt; [Accessed 24 April 2019].

[63] Alan Bryman, Disney And His Worlds (Abingdon-on-Thames, United Kingdom: Routledge, 1995). P.13

[64] “Disneyland Resort: A Fact Sheet For 2019”, Disneyland News, 2019 <https://disneylandnews.com/2019/03/13/disneyland-resort-a-fact-sheet-for-2019/&gt; [Accessed 14 April 2019] .- For the Walt Quote, Trying to find the actual interview…

[65] Brian J Robb, A Brief History of Walt Disney (London, United Kingdom: Little Brown Book Group, 2015). P.185

[66]Alan Bryman, Disney And His Worlds (Abingdon-on-Thames, United Kingdom: Routledge, 1995). P.13

Be the first to comment

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.